|Peking Opera of China|
|Author: 管理员 Posttime: 2013-05-16Readtimes:|
Peking Opera of China is the countrys treasure with a history of 200 years. It is known as one of the three main theatrical systems in the world. Artistically, Peking Opera is perhaps the most refined form of opera in the world. It has deeply moved the hearts of the Chinese people.
Although it is called Peking Opera, its origins are not in Beijing but in the Chinese provinces of Anhui and Hubei. In the 55th year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty(1790) ,the four big Huiban Opera (a kind of local opera in East China's Anhui Province) Troupes entered the capital and combined with Kunqu opera, Yiyang opera, Hanju( opera in central China's Hubei Province) Opera and Luantan in Beijing's theatricals circle of the time. Through a period of more than half a century of combination and integration of various kinds of opera there evolved the present Peking Opera, the biggest kind of opera in China, whose richness of repertoire, great number of artists of performance and of audiences, and profound influence are incomparable in China.
There are many kinds of Chinese opera , just like various local dialects. It has been estimated that there are thousands branches of Chinese opera. Most of them are local, dominating a region within a province and its surrounding area. However, Beijing Opera is the national standard, and has a higher reputation than any of the other branches of Chinese opera. Almost every province of China has several Beijing Opera troupes. Beijing and Tianjin are respected as the key base cities in the north while Shanghai is the base in the south.
Peking Opera is a synthesis of stylized action, singing, dialogue and mime, acrobatic fighting and dancing to represent a story or depict different characters and their feelings of gladness, anger, sorrow, happiness, surprise, fear and sadness. In Peking Opera there are four main types of roles: Sheng (male) Dan (young female), Jing (painted face, male), and Chou (clown, male or female). The characters may be loyal or treacherous, beautiful or ugly, good or bad, their images being vividly manifested. It should be noted that, at least theoretically, any of these character roles can be portrayed by persons of either gender.
The repertoire of Peking Opera is mainly engaged in fairy tales of preceding dynasties, important historical events, emperors, ministers and generals, geniuses and great beauties, from the ancient times to Yao, Shun, Yu (they are renowned the Three emperors as well as Chinese ancestors), the Spring and Autumn Period, the Warring States Period and the dynasties of Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing (these dynasties composed most part of Chinese feudal period).
The music of Peking Opera is that of the plate and cavity style? Its melody with harmonious rhythms is graceful and pleasant to the ears. The melody may be classifiedsintostwo groups: xipi and erhong guiding pattern, original pattern, slow pattern, quick pattern, and desultory pattern being their chief patterns. The performance is accompanied by a tune played on wind instruments, percussion instruments and stringed instruments, the chief musical instruments being Jinghu (a two-stringed bowed instrument with a high register), Yueqin( a four-stringed plucked instrument with a full-moon-shaped sound box), Sanxian( a three-stringed plucked instrument), Suona horn, flute drum, big-gong, cymbals, small-gong, etc.
The costumes in Peking Opera are graceful, magnificent, elegant and brilliant, most of which are made in handicraft embroidery. As the traditional Chinese vpatterns are adopted, the costumes are of a high aesthetic value.
The types of facial make-ups in Peking Opera are rich and various, depicting different characters and remarkable images, therefore they are highly appreciated. Moreover there are numerous fixed editions of facial make-up.
Since Mei Lanfang, the grand master of Peking Opera, visited Japan in 1919, Peking Opera has become more and more popular with people all over the world, and it has made an excellent contribution to cultural exchange between China and other countries in the world, to friendly association and to improvement of solidarity.